Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which manifests as high glucose (sugar) levels within the bloodstream. Symptoms associated with high glucose include frequent urination, excessive thirst, and increased hunger. Prolonged exposure to high blood sugar can affect almost every system within the body and result in serious complications such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and retinopathy (eye damage).

Diabetes Mellitus is generally separated into two types. Type I results from the pancreas failing to produce enough insulin (a lack of beta cells) and is normally seen early in life and therefore sometimes referred to as juvenile diabetes. Type II results from a failure of your body to process the insulin that is produced and normally occurs later in life. Obesity, smoking, and insufficient exercise are often precursors to this disease.

Treatment for both types of diabetes involves lifestyle changes which include maintaining a healthy diet, a normal body weight, regular exercise, and avoiding the use of tobacco. Type I diabetes requires the administration of insulin injections to maintain proper glucose control. Type II may be treated with medications that aid in insulin metabolism and/or insulin injections
as with Type I.

Researchers are looking toward stem cell treatments to try and improve outcomes for both types of diabetes. The focus of this research is on replacing damaged or absent beta cells in Type I and increasing glucose metabolism in Type II. Currently, the goal of stem cell treatment for Diabetes is to improve the patient’s quality of life by improving their body’s ability to produce and process insulin.

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The most current research regarding stem cells and Diabetes is given below:

Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Li Zang, Haojie Hao, Jiejie Liu, Yijun Li, Weidong Han and Yiming M

Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is characterized by the combination of relative insulin deficiency and insulin resistance, cannot be reversed with existing therapeutic strategies. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) was once thought to be the most promising strategy for treating diabetes, but the pace from the laboratory to clinical application has been obstructed due to its drawbacks. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) harbor differentiation potential, immunosuppressive properties, and anti-inflammatory effects, and they are considered an ideal candidate cell type for treatment of DM. MSC-related research has demonstrated exciting therapeutic effects in glycemic control both in vivo and in vitro, and these results now have been translated into clinical practice. However, some critical potential problems have emerged from current clinical trials. Multi-center, large-scale, double-blind, and placebo-controlled studies with strict supervision are required before MSC transplantation can become a routine therapeutic approach for T2DM. We briefly review the molecular mechanism of MSC treatment for T2DM as well as the merits and drawbacks identified in current clinical trials.



Type 1 Diabetes Reversed With Stem Cells From Cord Blood
Catharine Paddock PhD